Sunday, December 29, 2019

Operations Management Assignment - 3639 Words

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT MGCR 472 ASSIGNMENT # 1 (Total 100 points) Due on 7th October (Thursday) by 5pm Make sure to write the name, student # and section # for each student in the group on the cover page of the assignment 1. Suppose you/your group is the owner of a company that produces e-readers. The present production rate is 1000 e-readers /day and the selling price is $210/unit. It requires 200 workers working 8 hours/day to produce the e-readers and they are paid $20/hour. The material cost is $100/unit and overhead cost is $50,000/day. a) What is the unitless multi-factor (labor + material + overhead) productivity ratio? b) What is the labor productivity ratio (both unitless and in terms of units/labor hour)? You/your†¦show more content†¦Engineers will make this new method completely ready for production within 5 years. The total cost of replacement of siliconium with McGillium is estimated to be $170 million (in year 0’s dollar) and this cost estimation can go up or down by 25% per year. Due to the efficiency of this new production method, Intel’s price and demand will be as follows between years 6 and 10: Years 6 7 8 9 10 Price/Chip 500 500 450 425 350 Demand 2,500,000 2,500,000 2,500,000 2,500,000 2,500,000 Assume that the discount rate is 35%. (Note that it might be better to work with millions of dollars as the unit for the following questions) (a) Suppose that the cost of building the production facility is $250 million in year 0’s dollar. Then, calculate the NPV of first and second stages of production facility. Based on the total NPV, what is your suggestion about whether Intel should build the production facility or not? Justify your answer. (b) What is the option valuation of the second stage? (c) Based on your option valuation, does Intel make positive profit when production facility costs $250 million? How much can Intel spend for this production facility and still make profit? 6. General Foundry, Inc., a metalworks plant in Ontario, has long been trying to avoid the expense of installing air pollution control equipment. The local environmental protection group has recently given the foundry 12 weeks toShow MoreRelatedOPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT8173 Words   |  33 Pages LEADSTAR COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT (TMA) FOR OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT WEIGHT: 50% STUDENT NAME Abreham Kelile Kaba ID LMBA0013/2014 BACTH 1ST Part I: Multiple Choice Questions (1 point each) Choose the best answer from the following Questions _C__Q1.One advantage of Just-in-Time (JIT) Management of stock is _____a. It reduces the need to plan and organize _____ b. it removes the need for delivery Quality Control _____ c. it reduces the cost of holdingRead MoreOperation Management Assignment-CDS1724 Words   |  7 Pages Operation Management Assignment Liu Zhenya(Harry) 2014.2.26 Words[1724]Question1: Why is operations management important in this company ?Operations management refers to the administration of business practices to create the highest level of efficiency possible within an organization. Operations management is concerned with converting materials and labor into goods and services as efficiently as possible to maximize the profit of an organization (Stevenson, W. J., amp; Hojati, M., 2007). TheRead MoreAn Assignment On Operation Management Essay3566 Words   |  15 PagesAn assignment On Operation Management Submitted by: Submitted to: Date of submission: Table of Contents Executive Summary: 3 Introduction: 4 WH Smith 4 Reasons for selecting WH Smith as the selected organization: 4 1.1 Importance of operation management: 4 1.2 Operation management of an organization: 5 1.3 Process model for operation management: 6 2.2 Importance of Three E’s: 6 Economy: 6 Effectiveness: 7 Effectiveness: 7 2.2 Impact of tension on cost and quality: 7 2.3 Significance ofRead MoreOperations Management Assignment1609 Words   |  7 PagesQuestion 1: a) Learning curve equation: Y(u) = au-b u | Y(u) | Ln(u)x | Ln(Y(u))y | x2 | xy | 13 | 276 | 2.565 | 5.620 | 6.579 | 14.415 | 29 | 198 | 3.367 | 5.288 | 11.337 | 17.805 | 41 | 171 | 3.714 | 5.142 | 13.794 | 19.097 | 71 | 137 | 4.263 | 4.919 | 18.173 | 20.969 | 127 | 107 | 4.844 | 4.673 | 23.464 | 22.636 | | Sum: | 18.753 | 25.642 | 73.347 | 94.922 | x = 18.7535 = 3.751 y = 25.6425 = 5.128 m = 594.922-[18.75325.642]573.347-(18.753)2 = -0.415 c = 5.128 – (-0.415)(3Read MoreOperations Management Assignment2347 Words   |  10 PagesTable of Contents Case: Operations Management at Toyota 2 Conclusion 3 Case: Southwest Airlines Operation Management 3 Background: 3 Analysis of operation Management: 4 Conclusion 6 References: 7 Southwest Airlines Operations - A Strategic Perspective 7 â€Æ' Case: Operations Management at Toyota Toyota is among the leading automobile manufacturers of the world selling almost 9 million models at all the five continents. Toyota has been awarded a position in the top 10 fortune global 500 enterpriseRead MoreOperations Management Assignment - Mba 5021560 Words   |  7 Pagesefficiency with a standardized procedural approach using the single stage process instead of the before used multiple stage process. (Course Virtual Source) Each department manager deals with multiple stage processes in regards to the inventory management which starts from taking inventory, ordering the products, receiving the products, storing the products, and placing the products on the sales floor. The use of a single stage process would be more convenience and consistent with the counterpartRead MoreOperation Management Assignment : Make or Buy Decision2928 Words   |  12 Pagespracticed in the company is further investigated. By and large, this paper focuses on the central knowledge related to the make-or-buy decision. It is imperative for the decision makers to understand the process prior to their involvement in the operation managements. Awareness of such knowledge is paramount to the businesses, in order to achieve a competitive and efficient business strategy. 1.0 Introduction In our contemporary society backed by commercialization and the drive of profit-driven marketsRead MoreBus 599 Assignment 3 : Operation, Technology, and Management Plan1535 Words   |  7 PagesBUS 599 Assignment 3 : Operation, Technology, and Management Plan To Buy this Class Copy paste below link in your Brower Or Visit Our Website Visit : Email Us : BUS 599 Assignment 3 : Operation, Technology, and Management Plan Assignment 3 Part 1: Operation, Technology, and Management Plan Due Week 8 and worthRead MoreBus 430 Assignment 1: Lenscrafters Case Study1307 Words   |  6 PagesBUS 430 Assignment 1: LensCrafters Case Study BUS 430 Assignment 1: LensCrafters Case Study Assignment 1: LensCrafters Case Study Due Week 4 and worth 250 points This assignment requires student complete an analysis of the LensCrafters case from Chapter 6 of the text. Write a six to seven (6-7) page paper in which you: 1. Evaluate LensCrafters’ operations strategy and explain how the organization seeks toRead MoreOperations Management for Mcdonald963 Words   |  4 PagesBachelor of Science Operations Management Pre course assignment Intake: BSc14L Student Name: Wu Linlin Student Number: 10287698 Lecturer: Professor Brian Fynes Dr. Chang Chen Sheng Date of Submission: 21 February 2012 For the fast food chains, it is no doubt that McDonald s is successful in the world. It is known to all from children to elder. This is closely relevant to organization operation that produces food and services. Operation plays an important

Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Effects Of Sexual Revolution On Young Adults And Their...

The Sexual Revolution changed the way society viewed sex and what role it plays in lives and relationships. Beginning in the 1960s sexual relationships changed and have continued to morph over the decades, and this change has aided in the development of the â€Å"Hook-Up† culture. Hooking up greatly impacts young adults and their development and practice of cornerstone relationship skills. Negative relationship skills are being fostered by hooking up and are causing obstacles for long term relationships. The practice of positive life and romantic skills by men and women are hindered by hooking up, because instead of learning skills for marriage, like mutual trust and intimacy, hook ups nurture bad skills and overrule helpful dating practices. Marriage is wounded by hooking up because hook ups do not foster necessary practices for long-term relationships, like mutual trust and intimacy. This paper argues that long term relationships are undermined by the â€Å"Hook Up† culture because hooking up promotes distrust, doubt, fear, a loss of vulnerability, and hurts both partners’ hearts, minds, and souls; these skills create an inability to trust, be intimate, and hence undercut the formation of long-term relationships. The â€Å"Hook Up† Culture, although not new, is a culture that fosters ineffective skills for long-term relationships because this culture negates the positive traits of mutual trust and intimacy which are developed in the traditional dating culture. Practices such asShow MoreRelatedSexually Transmitted Diseases ( Std ) Essay1381 Words   |  6 Pagescommon and preventable health care problems in the world. The ageism of the population and the increase in the number of older adults, along with healthcare advances that provide better and longer quality of life, has encourage changes in sexuality amongst older adults. This increase has prompted healthcare workers to familiarize themselves with the sexuality of older adu lts. In this report, I plan to discuss the significance of this topic, the concern for the public, and interventions that can beRead MoreMedia, Society s Absurdity863 Words   |  4 Pagesbecome a powerful tool in manipulating the minds of the public. Furthermore, trying to escape the theories and viewpoints that are carefully calculated in several mediums has become nearly impossible to avoid stereotypes regarding gender roles and sexual orientations. Primarily, homosexuality has been one of the most recently stereotyped in the last 100 years. Leaders of media have deprived and harmed the lives of homosexuals since the beginning of the mainstream media, eventually forcing peopleRead MoreThe And The Dark Knight And Shows Like The Walking Dead Comic Book Based Properties1688 Words   |  7 Pageswith many comics being the source of more mature story telling like David Cronenberg’s History of Violence(2005) and James Mcteigue’s V for Vendetta(2005). Furthermore, par ents not well versed in the modern landscape of comics will purchase their young child a comic that is not entirely appropriate for them. Take for example you re a parent that is having a day out with your nine year old son to go see the new Avengers movie for his birthday. He really enjoys the film and once you leave the theaterRead MoreNot Lowering the Drinking Age1642 Words   |  7 Pagestwenty-one because the number of drunk driving accidents was causing many teen-age deaths. The young adults of America considered this law a second prohibition. Prohibition was the period in United States history in which the manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating liquors was outlawed. The push for Prohibition began in the beginning of the nineteenth century. After the American Revolution, drinking was on the rise. To combat this, a number of societies were organized as part of a newRead MoreThe Impact of the Internet on Society Essay example1611 Words   |  7 PagesIndividuals are starting businesses from scratch, while others are selling household items for extra cash. This internet â€Å"typhoon† sweeping the globe has become a way of life for many individuals all across the globe. Education has seen a recent revolution in the way it operates. No longer do students have to tire away through research papers and reference books found in the library. Now information is found at the click of the button and retrievable in less than a second. An example of this recentRead MoreInternet Impact on Society1636 Words   |  7 PagesIndividuals are starting businesses from scratch, while others are selling household items for extra cash. This internet â€Å"typhoon† sweeping the globe has become a way of life for many individuals all across the globe. Education has seen a recent revolution in the way it operates. No longer do students have to tire away through research papers and reference books found in the library. Now information is found at the click of the button and retrievable in less than a second. An example of this recentRead MoreReligion and its Effect on Society and Individuals Essay1603 Words   |  7 Pagessociety’s viewpoints and perspectives on various aspects of life have also changed. However, the one aspect of life that has stayed constant has been religion. The impact of a constant religious opinion on a changing society has detrimental and benign effects on the populace of such a society. Religion was partly created in an effort to answer the questions that couldn’t be answered in any other way; to provide an explanation for the unexplainable. Each religion in turn has it’s own version of a higherRead MoreVideo Games Cause Violent Behavior Essay1600 Words   |  7 Pagespeople decide who we are and what we will do with our lives. A digital screen and a controller can’t make us any more violent than we already are. Blaming violence on a simple sixty dollar piece of plastic is unfair. Games are rated early childhood to Adult only. This means that what we play is up to us and we are in control of what we choose to have around us. This also means that if you are a parent and you buy a rated M game for your seven years old it is your fault. Video games do not influence violentRead MoreThe Deterioration of Childhood Innocence Due to Media and Consumerism 1708 Words   |  7 Pagespreservation of innocence is not impossible. The innocence of children i s what turns them into successful adults, and how well adults do at this job may determine our planet’s future survival. The concept of childhood innocence is rapidly dying due to electronic media such as the television, the internet and corporations that use children as a commodity such as Disney, ultimately illustrating that adults must fight to preserve childhood innocence. Before the 1700’s, what we today understand as â€Å"childhood†Read MoreWhat Led to the Collapse of Consensus?1489 Words   |  6 Pagespart-time jobs. As a result, they developed their own culture. Teenager became the term used to describe the years between childhood and adult years. The generation gap between adults and the teenager became obvious. J.D. Salinger’s â€Å"The Catcher in the Rye†, published in 1951 told the story of a restless teenager, Holden Caulfield who rejected the hypocrisy of adult life: â€Å"If you want the truth they’re all bunch of phonies†. The book was banned in schools in 15 states. Youth culture was the basis upon

Friday, December 13, 2019

Book Review Last Song Free Essays

In The Last Song God is talked bout a lot and believe since Sparks was Catholic, that influenced him to add his religion into his Story. I personally do not see the author in the Story. I think he did not want to add himself in the book. We will write a custom essay sample on Book Review Last Song or any similar topic only for you Order Now The book is written in third person point of view. The point of view written in the book helps the reader understand what the character was feel Eng and the inking. Throughout the story, the author uses a lot of literary devices. At least every other page has a literary device to it. A common one I found throughout the story is simile. Of ours it’s the most common literary device. Ronnie loves her brother â€Å"even though they fight like cats and dogs† and â€Å"still [takes] him to the park every weekend† (Ronnie, 23) showing that she is still willing to do things for her only brother. Steve, Ronnie and Jonahs father, shows his love for his children throughout the novel. â€Å"Spending time with Joana had been like finding special treasure,† Steve loved his kids and spending time with them, â€Å"and he wanted to spend time with [Ronnie] as well† (Steve, 1 00) and wanted to be a part of their lives again. Love is a main theme throughout the story and while love is shown differently by each character, it is all the same. Steve has love for music and his children. Ronnie has love towards her family and Will who she met and fell in love with during the summer. And Joana loves spending time with his father and picking on his sister. The story is about a girl named Ronnie, who has to spend the summer with her dad and brother. She hung out with the wrong crowd at the beginning but after an incident she stayed away. While there she meets Will, a guy who helps her trust again. He helped her find her true self and mature into a young woman. It takes time for Ronnie to let her father back into her life again because she was upset at him for leaving. The story had lots of phrases I liked. One in particular but it is dialog between two main characters. ‘†Can I ask you a question? ‘ (Will) ‘I’m not sure I can stop you. â€Å"‘ (Ronnie, 151) do not know why but out of the entire dialog in the story that part just jumped out. It showed how straight forward Ronnie can be. The story is written using modern English. It is not to old were o cannot understand it. At the beginning of the Story, Ronnie felt distant with her father, maybe even hate towards him. When I was in middle school used to give my parents the cold shoulder. So I can kind of relate to how Ronnie felt at the beginning of the story. My favorite character is Ronnie because she will say â€Å"what [is] on her mind† (Will, 145) and not care what other people think. Marcus is my least favorite character. He â€Å"[thinks] only about himself† (Ronnie, 138) and his personality bugs me. In the beginning of the story Ronnie felt like she did not belong. In middle school when I just started as a sixth grader used to feel like I did not belong. But eventually just like Ronnie, started feeling like that’s where I am supposed to be. Personally enjoyed the entire story. It had its happy moments and other bittersweet moments that made this story one of my favorites. My favorite part of the story is when Ronnie visited Will’s house for the first time. She was like a fly in a glass of milk; the author writes, â€Å"She might as well have landed on mars† [Ronnie, 227] proving my point that she felt she didn’t belong there. My least favorite part was when Blaze planted some Cad’s in Rennin’s bag so it looked like she was shoplifting. Blaze knew what would happen to her because Ronnie said she couldn’t be caught shoplifting again during the year or they would not drop the charges from the other time she did it. Would definitely recommend this book. I have read it a couple Of times and seen the movie, each time finding something new in it. The book has a bittersweet ending to it but the message it gives is wonderful. Honestly, anybody would enjoy this, Nicholas Sparks writing pulls at the heart strings, if you are willing o put the time into reading this, you will not regret it because it is a good book. How to cite Book Review Last Song, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Herodotus Essay Research Paper As Herodotus develops free essay sample

Herodotus Essay, Research Paper As Herodotus develops his History he diverges from the chief facet of his narrative many times throughout the text. Many wonder why Herodotus diverges from the chief point by presenting minor characters who do non look relevant to the cardinal subject. Some consider this method of narrative confusing and pointless but I believe that Herodotus has a intent for including these minor figures and that these characters help show Herodotus political orientation towards proper moral and political systems. These minor figures are developed and manipulated by Herodotus in order to show his thoughts and he is able to carry through this because these characters are flexible in the sense that the readers ( and hearers ) do non hold a sensitivity when introduced to these characters. By closely analysing the minor characters throughout book seven we realize Herodotus # 8217 ; purpose behind the inclusion of these characters is to show his beliefs on the proper ethical motives people should exhibi t and to demo how Tyranny is a hapless signifier of authorities. As the History unfolds Herodotus diverges from the cardinal thought by presenting characters which do non look to match with that cardinal subject. These diverges serve teach the reader as to Herodotus # 8217 ; position on moral issues. Herodotus expresses his position on the manner decease should be perceived by society through the words of Artabanus. Xerxes represents the common perceptual experience of decease when he is look up toing the enormousness of his ground forces and begins to cry because he realizes that they will all be gone in short span of clip. Artabanus tells Xerxes # 8220 ; Life is gives us greater juncture for commiseration that this. Short as his life is, no adult male is happy # 8230 ; but many times, to wish himself dead instead alive ( Artabanus 7.46 ) . # 8221 ; Herodotus is explicating through these words that decease should non be seen in a negative position because life brings adult male so much problems and anguish that he desires for decease to come upon him. Artabanus tells us of these problems when he says # 8220 ; For there are catastrophes that meet him and diseases that derange him, so that they make this life # 8230 ; look long ( Artabanus 7.46 ) . # 8221 ; Even though people may hold with Xerxes actions that decease should be pitied but Herodotus does demo that life brings calamity to adult male and that decease may move as an flight from these calamities. We are able to see the manner proper behaviour should be displayed when 1 has been dishonored harmonizing to Herodotus. In book seven Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse, is requested for helpers to conflict Persia by Athens. Gelon is ferocious with this petition because Athens dishonored him by declining to assist in the yesteryear. Gelon strongly tells Athens # 8220 ; When I begged you to bear a manus with me in the battle against a barbaric enemy # 8230 ; when I kept pressing you to revenge the slaying of Dorieus # 8230 ; you did non come aid, either for my interest or to revenge the slaying of Dorieus ( Gelon 7.158 ) . # 8221 ; Many people would non oppugn Gelon for non assisting the Athenians against the Iranian invasion since they have been dishonored and now are a Providence of Persia but he does offer the Athenians aid. Herodotus uses Gelon to demo how one should turn the other cheek when Gelon says # 8220 ; But though I have met dishonour from you, I will non be like you ( Gelon 7.158 ) # 8221 ; and he offers ships and soldiers to the Athenians. Herodotus shows that one should contend in conflict under any circumstance in different cases throughout book seven. As Xerxes Marches towards Greece he and his ground forces are provided nutrient, shelter, and money by Pythius. All that Pythius asks for in return for his # 8220 ; generousness # 8221 ; is that is firstborn boy does non travel to war with Persi a and stays to care for him. Xerxes is enrages with this petition because non contending is non acceptable by anyone non even to the male monarch himself. Xerxes says â€Å"Vile animal, I am myself processing to Greece, and with me are my kids, my brothers, my family, and my friends ( Xerxes 7.39 ) † and he punishes Pythius for even sing his boy non contending by slaying his eldest boy. Another illustration of Herodotus’ position on combat is when the Spartans are entrapped by the Persians and want to conflict to the decease. Leonidas one of the male monarchs of Sparta knew his destiny was to decease if he went to conflict the Persians because it was prophesied before the war began. His destiny was to decease but he still went to contend the Iranis at the conflict of Thermopylae and â€Å"for himself he thought it would be dishonourable to go forth ( Leonidas 7.220 ) .† Herodotus besides uses these diverges to show that Tyranny is a hapless signifier of authorities. Herodotus shows that Tyranny is a signifier of authorities that contains mistakes which are non good to the people or the province as a whole. Herodotus uses Artabanus to demo how a authorities controlled by one adult male is more susceptible to doing bad determinations. Artabanus is reding Xerxes non to pay war on Greece by stating him of the past errors of former male monarchs. He tells Xerxes # 8220 ; I told your male parent, my brother Darius, non to pay war against the Scythian # 8221 ; and # 8220 ; He made his run and returned, holding lost many good work forces from his ground forces ( Artabanus 7.10 ) . # 8221 ; He besides tells Xerxes of other yesteryear failed conquerings ; Cyrus # 8217 ; expedition against the Massagentae and Cambyses # 8217 ; onslaught on the long lived Ethiopians. Herodotus besides says through Artabanus that # 8220 ; It is a awful thing, even to hear , that all the power if the King should lie at the disposal of one adult male ( Artabanus 7.10 ) . # 8221 ; Some may state that all male monarchs have advisers that help him do right determinations but as Herodotus demonstrates the male monarch does non ever listen to his advisers sound advice as in the instance of Xerxes and Artabanus. In a Oppressive signifier of authorities the people within the authorities are non content functioning under a one adult male regulation, harmonizing to Herodotus. In book seven Xerxes asks Demaratus to state him how Greece will fair under when invaded by Persia # 8217 ; s monolithic ground forces. Demaratus tells the male monarch that he will talk the truth about the Spartans because it was requested of him and he says # 8220 ; in no manner will they accept our proposal bearing bondage to Greece, and the 2nd is that they will dispute you to conflict, even though all the other Greek were on your side ( Demaratus 7.102 ) . # 8221 ; Xerxes can non believe that the Spartans would contend against such odds but Demaratus explains that they fight for a greater cause so the Persians. He tells Xerxes # 8220 ; They have as the tyrant over them Law, and the fright him more so your work forces fear you ( Demaratus 7.104 ) . # 8221 ; Herodotus is showing that persons under the regulation of democracy are more content so persons under Tyranny because they fight more valorously for their authorities. Herodotus uses the debut of characters to diverge from the cardinal thought of his subject and he uses this technique to show his positions on moral and political subjects. These controversial subjects come up while he is blossoming his History and he uses these characters to show his ain sentiment on these topics. An illustration of Herodotus # 8217 ; confronts moral topics during his narrative when he talks about decease, giving to 1s pride, and honest combat. He besides uses these characters to demo that Tyranny is non a good signifier of authorities. Bibliography Herodotus Translated by David Green

Sunday, November 24, 2019

5 Steps to a Killer Cover Letter

5 Steps to a Killer Cover Letter Cover letters remain a hugely important part of the job search game- no matter what your friends are telling you. And yes, we know it’s the hard part. We know writing might not be your strong suit. We know the competition is stiff. But still, you usually have to write one, and it should impress. Don’t throw away what could be your best opportunity to charm the hiring manager. Rather than waste your time (and your employer’s time) with a total stinker, laden with clichà ©s, take the time to really showcase everything that’s best about you. Here are five steps to crafting a cover letter that will help you stand out from your peers.1. Wow ‘em from the startGrab them with your opening line, and draw them in. Make it so good that the hiring manager can’t help themselves but read the whole thing- without skimming. Use fresh language. Tell a story. Show your personality (but don’t get too cocky; remember to keep it professional) and set the t one for the rest of the letter.2. Be specificPick 3-5 points you want to highlight that prove you are a perfect match for the job description. Show you’ve listened to what they need, then show them you are it. Tell them specifically what you would bring to the job, and why you’re the only one qualified to do so.3. Be personalBlend the personal and professional so they’re seamlessly woven into one narrative of your competence and sparkle. If there’s something about you that didn’t quite fit in your resume, but which makes you just perfect for this position, emphasize it here. Make sure to tie your sharing into the job itself. A personal story about saving a cat doesn’t make much of an impression for a data entry job.4. Stick the landingYou don’t have to go for the hard close to make the lasting impression. In fact, if you’re too brazen with your insistence of being the candidate of their dreams, you might put off the hiring mana ger. Try instead to emphasize how much you’d love the opportunity to meet with them and display how your skills and experience could be a real asset to their company.5. Get it into the right handsPut your cover letter both in the body of your email and include it as an attachment. Try to find a real live human’s email address, whether an HR manager or a connection-of-a-connection, and craft an informative subject line. Make sure if you’ve been referred by someone in your network to include their name up front.Finally, his  send, sit back, and see whether you succeeded in nailing your cover letter and getting your dream interview.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

I have detailed requirements on the photo Essay - 2

I have detailed requirements on the photo - Essay Example GMO’s have been in existence for a long time. GMO technology has been incorporated in both plants and animals. GMO is an organism that the genetic material has been changed by means of genetic engineering (GÃ ¶tz 1961). The technology helps in incorporating new trait to the living organism. Such traits may be resistance to herbicides, droughts, weeds, and some predators. The traits are derived from other organisms mostly bacteria. The technology has been dominant in plant. Plants have been produced that makes their chemicals for fighting insects as well as produce modified starch (GÃ ¶tz 1961). The technology is also in the advanced stage to produce food with high levels of vitamins as well as the antibiotics. The current trend in this technology employs incorporation of several traits to plants genome. GMO has been on the rise in the world. The major GM crop includes soy, maize, cotton, and rapseed. In fact, in 2008, there were over 100 billion hectares of cultivated GM crops (GÃ ¶tz 1961). Moreover, the number of countries practicing this technology has been on the rise. The technology has been prevalent in countries such as America, India, and China. However, it has received little acceptance in parts of Asia, Europe and Africa (GÃ ¶tz 1962). GMOs are considered beneficial in various ways. First, the technology has been shown to help in reducing agricultural costs (Lanton 2). Such costs are related to weeds, pests and crop diseases. This occurs through production of plants that are resistant to weeds, pest, and crop diseases. Moreover, the technology is seen as a way of achieving human needs of more food. This has been due to the burgeoning human population in the world. Consumers have questioned whether technology presents long-term health risks. A recent survey done in United States by New York Times found that three-quarters of the American population raised issues about health by having GMOs in their food

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

What is the effect of Tariff imposed by the US to Chinese solar panels Essay

What is the effect of Tariff imposed by the US to Chinese solar panels manufacture industries and on US producers - Essay Example Since the World Trade Organization provides for a free trade among its member states, such a move to impose tariffs on Chinese solar panels may not only infringe WTO trade agreement, but also bring disagreements that jeopardize the good trade relations that the country has had with China (Goldenberg, 2012). To better the situation for the American manufacturers, the commerce depart promised to enforce tariffs of 2.9 percent to 4.73 percent. This was after it was established that the Beijing government was offering unlawful grants to the Solar panel makers (Goldenberg, 2012). Some of the manufacturers acknowledged receiving government support and other cheap loans from the government. Though the imposition of the tariffs aims at leveling the unfair competition by Chinese manufacturers, some of the American based solar installation companies that rely on Chinese solar panels articulated their respite that the minimal tariffs imposed would not cause an increment in prices (Goldenberg, 2012). During his campaign trail, Obama indicated that renewable energy has for long been America’s innovation since solar power was first discovered at Bell Labs. Most of the countries have made efforts to promote clean energy sources to save the environment and reduce the effects of global warming (Goldenberg, 2012). The energy secretary noted that United States had overthrown China in clean energy investment by far. However, this growth in America’s clean energy was brought about by the low costs of Chinese solar panels. The increased demand for Chinese made solar panels has increased the United States solar panel imports from Chinese. This in turn resulted to the death of home grown solar manufacturing companies such as Solyndra and Evergreen Solar companies. This has resulted to embarrassment of Obama’s administration. Imposition of tariffs on the Chinese-made solar panels can assist the growth of the domestic solar panel manufacturers. Unfair competition, as noted

Monday, November 18, 2019

Projet 4 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Projet 4 - Essay Example The variances reflected the amount that needed to be earmarked for the vacation in Hawaii, life insurance of children, and the funds needed for the Christmas vacation, as identified under financial goals (Part 1). When these were not yet reflected in the Income and Expenses Statement for September, there was a surplus of $750. However, given that additional savings were needed for the planned expenses, no surplus was therefore reflected for October. Discuss what you learned about the budgeting process from this exercise and whether you feel you need to make any adjustments to your monthly budget. I realized that to finance planned vacations and other financial needs, the family needs to earmark an exact amount per month to save for these projected expenses. As shown from our comparative income and expense statements, the additional savings wiped our any surplus previously reflected. In this regard, in order to have a surplus amount, we should review some financial accounts and make l ittle adjustments in our monthly budget. The budget for food allowance, transportation and miscellaneous could be adjusted to give way for surplus in the future statements. B. Retirement Savings Needs In estimating the retirement savings needs, a quick response to the Ballpark Estimate indicates that â€Å"Based on the assumptions you entered, you have now saved enough to allow you to replace 6 percent of your final wages (this includes income from Social Security). The percentage of total salary you will need to save from now until retirement age to achieve your desired income replacement rate is 140 percent. The dollar amount you will need to save this year is $46,924† (Choose to Save, 2011). Information from the Social Security Online indicated that for Retirement, â€Å"Your estimated monthly benefit amount, beginning at age 62 and 1 month in 2040, is $2,729.00. For your estimate, we assumed future increases in prices or earnings† (Social Security Online, 2011). Th is information indicate that I need to earmark more funds for savings for my retirement. At the current monthly salary being received, the projected monthly benefit from the Social Security is only $2,729, which is below what I currently receive from my salary. Given that I do not need to support our children at that age, I still need to support and sustain daily living needs, including health and medications. C. Revised Goals Worksheet A. Describe the Goal B. Dollar Amount Required? C. Deadline Date? D. Date to Start Saving?   Number of Months to Save? (C - D) Monthly Savings Amount Long term goals: Vacation in Hawaii Retirement Fund $5000 $32,400 Dec. 2012 Jan. 2012 Oct. 2011 Dec. 2038 16 months 324 months $312.50 $100 Intermediate LT Goals Life insurance for the children $3000 Oct. 2016 Oct. 2011 60 months $50 Short Term Goals House fund Christmas vacation Summer

Friday, November 15, 2019

Trends of Punctuation in English and Lithuanian

Trends of Punctuation in English and Lithuanian Introduction The world of knowledge always tempted the scientists of any spheres. The nature, human body and brain gave birth to the many branches of science such as physics, medicine and philosophy. The analysis of a language was also one of the most popular branches of research of the linguists and grammarians of the fifteenth century. The unbounded interest in the development and variation of a language, and its constructions presented to the world the new approaches analysing the oral and written forms of any language: the phonology, phonetics, grammar and semantics. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, the scholars focused on the study of sounds and their pronunciation. The phoneticians and linguists analysed the origin of vowels and consonants, their structure and the interactions with other sounds, proffering different theories on the usage of them. A few decades later, the majority of scientists turned their focus on the analysis of a communication, basically, the orally expressed l anguage. They gave birth to the new branch of the analysis of language: the rhetoric. Analysing the language as the changeable system of sounds and their combinations, the scientists believed that oral presentation of a language could be divided into smaller units, which were distinguished with the assistance of hearing. Moreover, this division could help to show the purpose of the thought expressed, not only indicating the mood of a speaker, but also presenting the correct function of a thought in a sentence. However, the sixteenth century and the growing needs of the written texts, made the scholars to realize that the language was more complex system of communication. The influence of a church encumbered the scientists. Consequently, the linguists had to concentrate not only on the structure of a sentence and its correlation in a paragraph; they also had to find a method to inbreathe the emotions to the written expressions of thoughts, that the created sentences on the paper would have the same intonation as it was produced orally in a conversation. In order to achieve this purpose the punctuation was created. Motivational basis of the research. The grammarians paid great attention to the phonology, syntax, grammar, the structure of a sentence and its expressions in the oral and written forms. They noticed that the oral structure of the thought cared equal importance of the one visually presented. Moreover, the scientists realized that fair influence was made on the comprehension of a thought or a text. They believed that the punctuation was the basis not only in the specification of the purpose of a sentence, but also in the identification of a style of a text presented. In order to understand the purpose and the usage of marking, the scientists analysed punctuation from different trends of linguistic. Thus, the punctuation was divided into two different traditions: the rhetorical and grammatical. From rhetorical point of view, the composition played the most important role in any kind of communication. The grammarians assumed that composition was a foundation-stone in the science of rhetoric. They presented a theory that a good text or a paragraph depended on three components: â€Å"clear thinking, reading the best and most vigorous writers; and frequent practice in writing, along with careful polishing of what we have written.† ( Meiklejohn J. 1915:175) In other words, the good presentation of a text, especially a thought expressed in written or oral form, depended on the correct and considered structure of a sentence. The linguists, on the contrary, saw oral speech as a â€Å"multimodal, multi channel event that encoded a lot of redundant information.† (Dawnkings J. Breath, Grammar, and Proper Punctuation 1925:1) According to them, people varied the intensity of speech; modulated the intonation, making their voice to rise or to fall as well as using the gestur es, body language and facial expressions. These actions provided additional information on the message produced. The linguists also assumed that the punctuation was expressed with help of intonation, pitch and pauses. Later, these methods took the role in the grammatical division of a sentence. Intonation in written texts served as â€Å"a controller of meaning† providing â€Å"more phrasing information to the reader.† (Flippo R.F. Punctuationand intonation effects on the perception of texts 2001:133). Pitch, on the other hand, indicated the emotional state of a speaker. Rising or falling tone of any word uttered showed the feelings of a communicator either anger, the cry, warring or command. The body language and gestures also assisted in the comprehension of a thought expressed. Grammatical tradition of punctuation, however, lost these â€Å"visual and auditory channels leaving only words and grammatical structures to carry the message.† (Dawnkings J. 1925:2) The grammatical punctuation was used as system of marks that separated or combined the words, sentences or their parts. The linguists assumed that the main function of the punctuation marks was to present a correct meaning of a thought and a speaker or writer was responsible for this action. However, the grammarians soon realized that the liberal rules of punctuation not only provided the freedom of a writer to express their thoughts in the structure they wanted; frequently, this method of punctuating texts led the readers into the ambiguity. Although, the grammarians tried to present and explain the grammatical rules in the simplest way as possible, many people as well as students yet confronted with the difficulties in punctuating any sentence or a text. Therefore, the interest in the punctuati on as intonational device expressing the thought of a written language and the arising difficulties analysing the sentence from structural point of view in both languages English and Lithuanian languages have formed the motivation basis of the research. Different groups of linguists understood the conception of the punctuation differently. Ones concentrated on the intonational part of the sentence and analysed the punctuation marks as the markers of the mood or emotional state of a reader or a writer. Others believed that marking consisted of the strict, sometimes called dogmatic, grammatical rules which could divide the sentence for the further graphical analysis. From these opinions the traditional (rhetorical) and modern (grammatical) concepts of the punctuation appeared. Although, the traditional point of view of punctuation lost the attention in the beginning of the sixteenth century, more and more the grammarians chose to focus their attention on the analysis of the text from the rhetorical point of view, and to practice this way of teaching the grammar, especially punctuation, concentrating on the fluency and the sound of the thought, rather than the structure or strict order of the words. They were of the opinion that the richness and fluency of any text was provided through the intonation and the way to achieve that correct punctuation was required. It may seem that the grammatical point of view had the same function: to indicate a sentence and provide the fluency of the thoughts or texts. However, modern view of punctuation concentrated on the structure of a sentence. It divided a text into units, sentences, and their parts. It indicated the beginning or the end of the thought presented in sentence; provides the general information about a cert ain type of a sentence such as declarative, affirmative, or question. Grammatical analysis distinguished the sentence into units, while rhetorical point of view presented the sentence analysing its â€Å"voice† expressed while reading in silent or out loud. The purpose of the research paper attempts both: the introduction of the punctuation from the traditional and modern points of views and the comparative analysis of punctuation marks comma and dashas well as their interactions with the structure and meaning of a sentence of the texts in English and Lithuanian languages. The main tasks for attaining the aim are: to introduce a reader to the major trends of punctuation to collect the empirical data coherent with the variation of the punctuation and its application of rules on the original texts and their translations to analyse and compare the system and the usage of the punctuation marks of both languages: Lithuanian and English In order to fulfil the research, the analytical, interpretive and comparative methods have been used. The study of analytical method is used for the analysis of scientific literature sources related to the punctuation, its development and the difficulty of its usage. The application of interpretive methods is necessary for the presentation of the different aspects and ideas presented in the analysis the punctuation. The comparative method provides the possibility to distinguish the different functions of punctuation marks used in the texts of scientific and belles-lettres styles. Literature review. Analysing the punctuation from the very ground, it appeared that the first ever used mark in presenting a sentence was a â€Å"space.† Its function was to indicate a short pause between the words either in oral or written forms. Though rhetoric was an ancient science of speaking, it also had some changes including the development of new theories on its function. Defining the rhetoric, it might be said that this science was a system of five canons: â€Å"inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria and pronuntiatio.† (NauckÃ…Â «naitÄ— 2000: 12) These canons served as the guiding lines to the correct and clear way of a speech presented. Though, the classicists and modernists of rhetoric analysed the texts according to these five canons, they expressed different opinions on the relationship between a speaker and communication. The classicists believed that the mind was the most important feature in a human, while the main purpose of rhetoric wa s to persuade the listener. The followers of the modern rhetoric, on the contrary, stated that the significant part in a human was the feelings. The expression of feelings used in the communication provided the mutual understanding between the speaker and the listener. Concentrating on the relationship of speaker and listener, the modernists drew a conclusion that the main purpose of rhetoric was to inform the listeners rather than to persuade. Passing decades, however, made the linguists to realize the significant changes in the conception of rhetoric. Many of them noticed that the rhetoric started to be used an indicator of stylistics. Meiklejohn saw the rhetoric as â€Å"the art of putting sentences together.† (Meiklejohn J. M. D. English Grammar, its history and literature 1915: 175) He stated that â€Å"a text has to be presented clear, coherent and vivid. â€Å"(1915: 175) To achieve this, the writer had to know the grammar, sentence structure, and the particularity of language and its clarity. Rhetorical approach of punctuation presented the punctuation marks as indicators of the intonation. The term of intonation referred â€Å"to a means for conveying information in speech which is independent of the words and their sounds.† (Nolan F. 2006:1) According to Francis Nolan, the intonation fulfilled several tasks in analysing language. Intonation â€Å"signalled grammatical structure, [†¦] reflecte d the information structure of an utterance, highlighting constituents of importance.† (2006:1) The punctuation marks, used in the field rhetoric analysis, provided a reader the stylistically presented text. In the text, the punctuation marks indicated the pitch (beginning or the end of the sentence), tone (the mood or attitude of a speaker), and pauses (the length of time, used between the words). Each mark had its own function, such as presenting a request, an order or command. In other words, punctuation provided a reader vivid and natural utterance of a language, which was very similar to the conversation. The usage of a specific punctuation mostly depended on the style the text or a paragraph presented. Therefore, it might be assumed that stylistics also contributed to the rhetoric. Knowing the style or genre of a written text (whether it was scientific, belles-letters or essay) it was easy to notice a particular structure of the sentences, which characterised the punctua tion. A text, written on the scientific purpose, had more complicated structure of punctuation than the belles-letters. Long complex sentences, unemotional, specific terminology and concrete language pictured the scientific style, where the basic punctuation marks appeared to be comma, semicolon and colon. On the contrary, the belles-letters style and essay offered more liberal marking system of a text using the figures of speech such as parenthesis, similes or periphrasis. These figures of speech often played the role of a text colouring. Ã…Â ½uperka K. in his work Stilistika showed the punctuation as a tool of a rhetoric, where the words provided the emotional shade of a sentence and the marks only indicated the mood of the speaker. Walker J., however, offered a different explanation of punctuation. According to him, punctuation was a system of principles that arose† from nature of the living voice, from the perception of harmony in the ear, and from a certain super addition to the senesce of language, of which grammar took no account.† (Walker J. A rhetorical grammar 1829:40) This kind of attitude provided the basic explanation of the prediction of a mark. In order to present the actual intonation, used in any conversation or written text, the writers concentrated on the melody of a thought, rather than on the correct structure of a sentence. They wanted to save the natural fluency of words and sentences produced in the written texts, therefore, most of writers focused on the intonational part of a s entence, and its alteration during the conveyance of a correct meaning of a thought. Intonation, especially the rising or falling tones, played as the indicators of emotions of a speaker as well as the directive in the determination of a sentence type. From structural point of view the punctuation belonged to the syntax â€Å"a device of the communication and the expression of thoughts, presented in the form of colloquial language or written text†. (Labutis V. LietuviÃ…Â ³ kalbos sintaksÄ— 2002: 7) Presenting punctuation as a â€Å"device of the syntax†( Ã…  arÄ eviĆ¡ 1997:179), the grammarians and linguists concentrated on the functional structure of marking a sentence. The punctuation marks served as the indicators of the sentence or a text. They separated or combined particular parts of a sentence, or the whole units, marked the beginning or the end of thought. Other function of the marks was to present a clear, correct and emotional sentences used in silent reading, as they would be produced in oral communication with all specific details such as tone, intonation or pitch. Mcelroy J. presented the punctuation as a system â€Å"ultimately controlled by the principles of constructio n or thought that depended upon the usage only so far as the usage truly represented these laws of thought and construction.†(Mcelroy 1878:1) He assumed that the choice of punctuation marks and their quantity used in a text was â€Å"a question of taste† and depended on a writer. Although, clearly presented conception of the liberal punctuation gave the freedom to the creators of texts, it also influenced the text structure and incorrectly used punctuation, which let the reader or listener to the ambiguity and mistakenly interpreted meaning of a thought. Therefore, the liberty of a writer to choose the punctuating marks according to his point of view, in modern English grammar was replaced by the strict and concrete rules of punctuation. Analysing Lithuanian, on contrary, it might be said that the modern punctuation of this language were taught and used as a strict system of the rules, indicating the way of punctuating a text. Recent research, however, presented a â€Å"liberal tendency of the usage of punctuation.† (SpingytÄ— M. 2010:3)SpingytÄ— M. stated that â€Å"this liberation provided to the writer a possibility to correct the emotional weight of a sentence.† (2010:3) It was a choice of a writer to mark or emphasize a specific word or part of a sentence, which, according to him, might have some additional or influential meaning. However, there was a possibility that this kind of liberalisation might negatively affect the functions of separate punctuation marks. The liberal punctuation rules lessened the specific function of each punctuation mark, leaving a writer to decide which marking was better to be used. It might be stated that the liberal punctuation concentrated more on the intonation rather than grammatical structure of the sentence. This conclusion is based on an analysis of silent reading, which was more influenced by the visual usage of intonation and tone, and less- by the grammatical structure. The empirical data of the research.The primary resources of the bachelor paper are taken from the works: Expression of the Communicative Function of Language in Punctuation by SpingytÄ— M; Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics by Lyons J, and the Forsyte sagaby Galsworthy J. The examples used in the analysis of the punctuation marks are taken from Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics and the Forsyte saga, and their translations to the Lithuanian language. The structure of the research. The bachelor paper consists of the introduction, two main sections, conclusions and the references of the works used. The first part of the research introduces the reader to the two concepts of the punctuation, its variation and the application in the different fields of study. The first section contains the analysis of the punctuation marks from the traditional and modern points of view, i.e. the study of punctuation marks from rhetorical and grammatical fields, and their influence to the meaning of a context. The second part of the research paper provides the analysis on the system of punctuation, comparing the specific punctuation marks such as comma,dash and hyphen in English and Lithuanian languages, used in the texts of scientific and belles-lettres styles. The figures, presented in the second part were used to indicate the functions and the spread of their usage. Part I The major trends of punctuation Punctuation has been an inseparable part of written or spoken language. The punctuation marks, which served only as indicators of the elocution at the beginning of the fifteenth century, quickly influenced other parts of science: grammar, syntax and nowadays widely analysed field of the programming. Through centuries, the formed theories of the purpose and the usage of punctuation marks intrigued the experts and scientists of any language. The grammarians such as George Puttenham and Simon Daines were the first ones who provided the classification of the English punctuation marks from the rhetorical point of view in their works The Arte of English Poesie and Orthoepia Anglicana. The main purpose was to bring, at least, the basic order of punctuation marks, which were missed in the works of twelve century. The biggest merit was to be given to the grammarian Ben Johnson, who systemized the punctuation and provided its analysis from the syntactical point of view.This approach of the punctuation was used till the beginning of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, the Johnsons analysis had not provided a specific usage of marks; the writers used â€Å"commas with every subordinate clause and separable phrase.†(Encyclopaedia Britannica Punctuation in English since 16002008:85) T herefore, analyzing the texts of the middle and early modern English, the inordinate usage of the comma usually is found in those texts. Later decades brought more clarified analysis of the punctuation marks. The grammarians classified and structuralised the punctuation marks according to their purpose or functions. Punctuation became a significant part of structure and cohesion of any text. The deeper analysis of the text revived the interest of grammarians in punctuation not only from rhetorical point of view, but of grammatical as well. Punctuation became important attribute of grammar for the expression of thoughts and the correct understanding of meaning of a sentence. It did â€Å"conduce to make a written language more effective, by exhibiting with greater precision and definiteness the ideas, feelings and emotions of an author.† (Wilson J. A treatise on English punctuation 1856: 2) Therefore, the main aim of the writers was to inbreathe the same intonational expression and emotional influence to the written texts, which was used in the speech and oral communication. 1.1. Rhetorical tradition of punctuation Rhetoric was the oldest science that analysed a language from the oral perspective. Defined as â€Å"the Art of Persuasion†and â€Å"artistic use of language for the sake of aesthetic effects†(Jonge C. 2008:49), rhetoric also served as the guide to correct pronunciation and rhythm, used in speaking or the speech presentations. (Walker J. 1829: ii) Intonation, pitch, the length of pause, all these elements were classified as important features used in simple communication or presenting a speech. Moreover, they not only presented a language as a rhythmical system of sounds, they also provided additional information about the speech and the speaker himself. The rhetoricians believed that these â€Å"elements of language [were] physical: the noise words made and the rhythm of their relationship.† (Tredinnick M. Writing well 2008: 14) In other words, they had the ability to change the meaning of a sentence produced, when the pitch or tone was used incorrectly. Since the oral communication was the first human step towards the analysis of a language as a separate field, rhetoric had to carry two functions: to correct the prosody of oral language and to present the basic grammar, in this case- punctuation. The rhetoricians stated that the speech of any style provided to audience had to respond to five basic questions, also called cannons: a) inventio, b) dispositio, c) elocutio, d) memoria and e) pronuntiatio.† (NauckÃ…Â «naitÄ— 2000: 12) Each of the canons had specific function which was needed in order to express the thoughts in correct and beautiful manner of speaking. Inventio was used to gather and classify the material related to the topic. The speaker had to specify the information used in writing a speech. The term dispositio stood for the enunciation. Its purpose was to group the elements of language logically. Elocutio (style) served as the indicator of a speech presented. It was used as guiding line identifying a style of the written text and the correct grammatical usage of language. Memoria (memorization). Each speech, presented to the audience, needed to be learnt by heart. Pronuntiatio (speaking). The purpose of this canon was to present the speech in correct manner of articulation and gestures. A speaker had to pay attention to the intonation, pitch, tone of the speaking voice, especially, in order to convey the correct meaning of the thought; apart from the articulation, a speaker needed to use the gestures that convinced the meaning of a though expressed. The rhetoricians believed that, being correctly used, these canons could present the perfect creation of written or spoken work. However, rhetoric was used not only the elocution, it also involved the concrete cycle of transformation of a thought to a word. In other words, the silent or loud reading also was under the influence of the rhetoric. The reading itself was regarded as a â€Å"system of rules, which teaches us to pronounce written composition with justness, energy, variety, and ease†. (Walker J. 1829:39).Thus, it might be assumed that the reader needed to use a combination of rhetoric and grammar, in order to understand a text correctly, and to convey the correct meaning to the listener (if a text was read out loud). The rhetoric, mostly, the communication itself, involved every part of human life: â€Å"thought, language, voice and action.†(NauckÃ…Â «naitÄ— 2000:13) Although the main canons remained the same, passing decades brought some disagreements between the scholars who analysed the rhetoric. The rhetoricians were in the dilemma regarding the approach to a human and communication. These disagreements divided rhetoric into two groups: classical and modern rhetoric. (see Table 1) The followers of classical rhetoric believed that the main purpose of rhetoric was to persuade a listener; it meant to present the ideas, which were correct and kept as facts, until other, more persuasive, thoughts appeared. The information presented needed to be clear, correct and concrete, without any additional elements. The followers of modern rhetoric disagreed with the classicists. The modernists assumed that a text presented had to inform listeners or readers rather than to persuade them. The communication with the audience was the requirement; the information presented needed to imply some feelings to the audience. Modernists believed that great influence of any speech resided not only in its structure or the specific information, but also in the manner of its presentation. It might be said that the modernists had found a more delicate way to control the attention of a listener or larger audience. Table 1. The differences in classical and modern rhetoric Though, the approach of human and communication in the rhetoric confronted disagreements between the scientists, the function of punctuation was clearly defined:†the chief reason for punctuating: to clarify the intent structure of language that would-or simply might-otherwise be confusing or misleading.† (Lauchman R. Punctuation at Work 2002:24) In rhetoric, however, punctuation was used for a wider purpose. In order to present stylistically correct and â€Å"living† sentences or text, the punctuation concentrated on the speech patterns such as pitch, tone or intonation. Each mark had to fulfil a specific function that would help the reader or speaker to produce the texts more naturally, i.e. to inbreathe the exact or, at least, similar sound of a tones or pitch used in the oral communication. Moreover, the punctuation marks provided the meaning of the finished thought or showed the need of additional information as well as indicated the type or the functions of th e sentences. For instance, the full stop showed the end of a sentence, which had the falling tone. The thought was finished, and had no additional meaning. The question mark, on the contrary, introduced the reader to the rising tone and intonation, and showed the need of additional information form the different speaker. Though, each punctuation mark was important in the reading and understanding any written text, comma, dash and hyphen were widely used in rhetorical punctuation. 1.1.1. Comma and intonation Communication was inseparable part of human life. It helped to understand others, read their actions, or simply to exchange the information with each other. Writing as well as speaking had the same purpose: to present any information to a reader. However, the complication arose: the most of the aspects of a language used in speaking were not â€Å"as well represented in writing: the rises and falls in pitch, the accents, the pauses, the rhythm, the variations in voice quality— all of them features of sound that contributed significantly to speaking but that writing showed haphazardly if at all.†(Chafe W. 1989:1) Thus, the main purpose of the usage of punctuation was to present the visual equivalent to the spoken language in order to show the correct tone or intonation used in the sentence. The missed or misplaced punctuation mark often led to the misinterpretation of the meaning. The equal misinterpretation of a meaning depended on the rhythm, i.e. the stress marks and the length of syllables. Intonation itself strongly effected the communication; the correct function of information depended on the manner of its utterance. The linguists noticed that people â€Å"more violently react to intonational meanings than to lexical ones.† (Hewings M. Tone Choice in the English Intonation of Non-Native Speakers 1995: 251) It might be stated that the information presented to the audience usually was under the influence of intonation. Pitch, rising or falling tones began to play the significant role in the quality of any spoken text. A speaker needed to pay attention not only on spoken text, but also to control his voice level and the length of pauses between the words. The scientists of phonetics noticed that the variations in a spoken activity were influenced by several external factors: environment, the rank of people spoken to and the audience to which information was presented. Through the careful analysis of speech activities, the scientists noticed the three styles of pronunciation: formal, careful colloquial, and rapid familiar. Formal style of pronunciation was used to â€Å"reading, reciting, speaking before larger audience, at ceremonies, or delivering an academic lecture.† (Hoppe R. 2004: 20) The careful colloquial style had medium tempo and used the assimilations. This style was used in â€Å"every-day conversations, when talking to the official persons or strangers.†( Hoppe R. 2004: 20) The rapid familiar style was expressed in â€Å"rapid conversations: speaking with friends, in the family, or in the pub.† (Hoppe R. 2004: 20) This style used fast speed, the assimilations and reductions. The speech spoken in rapid tempo lessened the length of a pause in a sentence; this led listeners not only to the misunderstanding of the whole information, but also to the annoyance towards the speaker because the information spoken in rapid manner was hard to follow. The slow speaking, on the contrary, extended the length of pauses and they lost main function. A speech or presented text became monotonic and hard to follow, as well as influenced the variation of tone; the long pauses changed the structure of sentence. Therefore, in order to control the length and structure of the sentences, punctuation was used. It might be stated that comma was the most widely used punctuation mark in rhetoric. The main function of this mark was to present the pauses between the words and to indicate a type of tone or intonation used in a sentence. The changes of intonation depended on the place of comma used in a sentence. In other words, comma separated the words from them to running to other parts of a sentence influencing their changes of intonation. To present the deeper analysis of the tone and intonational variations, the sentences from Galsworthy J. work The Forsyte Saga and its translation into Lithuanian by Irena BalÄ iunienÄ— were chosen. The visual presentation of the flow and the alteration of the tone and intonation of sentences were analysed using the special markingâ€Å'. (see Table 2) Table 2. The symbols used for the transcription of the pronunciation The symbol The purpose of usage. â€Å' à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ long pause à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ short pause low falling melod

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Dynamic Characters In A Tale O :: essays research papers

Dynamic Characters in A Tale of Two Cities   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The English novelist, Charles Dickens, is one of the most popular writers in the history of literature. During his life, he wrote many books, one of them being A Tale of Two Cities. Dickens uses many dynamic characters in this novel. Dynamic characters or, characters that drastically change, play a very important role in the novel A Tale of Two Cities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Towards the beginning of the novel, Jerry Cruncher’s actions are rather disturbing. Mrs. Cruncher is very religious and is always praying. Jerry constantly refers to her praying as flopping and unnatural, even though she says her prayers â€Å"only come from the heart. . . . they are worth no more than that †(49). He does not put up with her flopping and even abuses and criticizes her when she chooses to pray. â€Å"I won’t be prayed agin, I tell you. I can’t afford it. I’m not a going to be made unlucky by your sneaking. If you must go flopping yourself down, flop in favour of your husband and child, and not in opposition to ’em† (49). Jerry Cruncher has a secret second occupation that no one knows about. He is a body snatcher and hides this from his family and everyone else. When Mr. Lorry finds out about this, he is very disappointed and says, â€Å"My mind misgives me much, that you have used the respectable an d great house of Tellson’s as a blind, and that you have had an unlawful occupation of an infamous description† (286). At the end of the story, Jerry Cruncher makes two vows to Miss Pross. One of them is that he will never interfere with his wife’s praying. He says, â€Å"and let my words be [taken] down and [taken] to Mrs. Cruncher through yourself—that wot my opinions respectin’ flopping have undergone a change, and that wot I only hope with all my heart as Mrs. Cruncher may be a flopping at the present time† (340). The other promise he made to Miss Pross is that he will give up body snatching. Another dynamic character in A Tale of Two Cities is Dr. Alexander Manette. Before Dr. Manette went to the Bastille, he is a â€Å"young physician, originally an expert surgeon, who within the last year or two has made a rising reputation in Paris† (298). When the reader met Dr. Manette for the first time, much of is memory is forgotten and he is very weak.